### Quanta of Solace

Thursday, June 20th, 2019In *Quanta* magazine, Kevin Hartnett has a recent article entitled A New Law to Describe Quantum Computing’s Rise? The article discusses “Neven’s Law”—a conjecture, by Hartmut Neven (head of Google’s quantum computing effort), that the number of integrated qubits is now increasing exponentially with time, so that the difficulty of simulating a state-of-the-art QC on a fixed classical computer is increasing *doubly* exponentially with time. (Jonathan Dowling tells me that he expressed the same thought years ago.)

Near the end, the *Quanta* piece quotes some UT Austin professor whose surname starts with a bunch of A’s as follows:

“I think the undeniable reality of this progress puts the ball firmly in the court of those who believe scalable quantum computing can’t work. They’re the ones who need to articulate where and why the progress will stop.”

The quote is perfectly accurate, but in context, it might give the impression that I’m endorsing Neven’s Law. In reality, I’m reluctant to fit a polynomial or an exponential or any other curve through a set of numbers that so far hasn’t exceeded about 50. I say only that, regardless of what anyone believes is the ultimate rate of progress in QC, what’s already happened today puts the ball firmly in the skeptics’ court.

Also in *Quanta*, Anil Ananthaswamy has a new article out on How to Turn a Quantum Computer Into the Ultimate Randomness Generator. This piece covers two schemes for using a quantum computer to generate “certified random bits”—that is, bits you can *prove* are random to a faraway skeptic. one due to me, the other due to Brakerski et al. The article cites my paper with Lijie Chen, which shows that under suitable computational assumptions, the outputs in my protocol are hard to spoof using a classical computer. The randomness aspect will be addressed in a paper that I’m currently writing; for now, see these slides.

As long as I’m linking to interesting recent *Quanta* articles, Erica Klarreich has A 53-Year-Old Network Coloring Conjecture is Disproved. Briefly, Hedetniemi’s Conjecture stated that, given any two finite, undirected graphs G and H, the chromatic number of the tensor product G⊗H is just the minimum of the chromatic numbers of G and H themselves. This reasonable-sounding conjecture has now been falsified by Yaroslav Shitov. For more, see also this post by Gil Kalai—who appears here *not* in his capacity as a quantum computing skeptic.

In interesting math news beyond *Quanta* magazine, the Berkeley alumni magazine has a piece about the crucial, neglected topic of mathematicians’ love for Hagoromo-brand chalk (hat tip: Peter Woit). I can personally vouch for this. When I moved to UT Austin three years ago, most offices in CS had whiteboards, but I deliberately chose one with a blackboard. I figured that chalk has its problems—it breaks, the dust gets all over—but I could live with them, much more than I could live with the Fundamental Whiteboard Difficulty, of all the available markers always being dry whenever you want to explain anything. With the Hagoromo brand, though, you pretty much get all the benefits of chalk with none of the downsides, so it just strictly dominates whiteboards.

Jan Kulveit asked me to advertise the European Summer Program on Rationality (ESPR), which will take place this August 13-23, and which is aimed at students ages 16-19. I’ve lectured both at ESPR and at a similar summer program that ESPR was modeled after (called SPARC)—and while I was never there as a student, it looked to me like a phenomenal experience. So if you’re a 16-to-19-year-old who reads this blog, please consider applying!

I’m now at the end of my annual family trip to Tel Aviv, returning to the Eastern US tonight, and then on to STOC’2019 at the ACM Federated Computing Research Conference in Phoenix (which I can blog about if anyone wants me to). It was a good trip, although marred by my two-year-old son Daniel falling onto sun-heated metal and suffering a second-degree burn on his leg, and then by the doctor botching the treatment. Fortunately Daniel’s now healing nicely. For future reference, whenever bandaging a burn wound, *be sure* to apply lots of Vaseline to prevent the bandage from drying out, and also to change the bandage daily. Accept no fancy-sounding substitute.